Background and Aims
Root distribution has a major influence on soil exploration and nutrient and water acquisition by plants. Soil coring is a well-known way to estimate root distribution. However, identifying an optimal core-sampling strategy is important if one is to strike the right balance between the high cost of making field estimates of root length density (RLD) vs. the need for accurate estimates. Virtual assessment of competing soil-coring strategies, based on three-dimensional (3-D) models of root system architecture (RSA), is a highly effective way to find that balance.
The trajectories of the axile roots of two maize cultivars having contrasting axile root angles were measured in the field using in situ 3-D digitization. Lateral roots were also measured by recording topological and geometrical parameters. Based on the measurement dataset obtained, contrasting 3-D RSA models of individual maize plants were constructed in which the different lateral rooting angles were represented. Using these RSA models the accuracies of various core-sampling strategies for estimating RLD were assessed in a series of virtual experiments.
Substantial biases occur if a one-core sampling strategy is used to estimate RLD. The biases largely remain for two-core sampling, although a weighting method can reduce these. However, given that identification of an optimal weighting method is difficult in practice, a new sampling strategy is proposed based on an area-weighting algorithm. In this way low deviations in RLD estimation can be achieved by sampling between rows and also by using larger-diameter (7.5 or 10 cm) cores.
A 3-D root architecture model based on a detailed measurement dataset provides an ideal platform for assessing a range of soil-coring strategies. The improved two-core sampling strategy, based on an area-weighting algorithm, shows considerable promise as a cost-efficient way of obtaining good quality RLD estimates for maize.